HIV & AIDS STI

Globally, over 2.1 million adolescents aged 10–19 and 5 million young people aged 15–24 are living with HIV. As a result of greater availability of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, many infants born with HIV can now survive into adolescence.

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Overall objective:
To develop a multi-level HIV risk-reduction intervention targeting sex workers and their clients at entertainment venues (bars/night clubs) in Mombasa, Kenya and test its feasibility and acceptability, as well as the feasibility of an intervention evaluation design to be used in a future larger study.

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The Biomarkers Study, short for “Characterisation of Novel Microbicide Safety Biomarkers in East and South Africa”, was initiated with the overall aim of establishing baseline ranges of biomarkers related to the vaginal environment in African target populations for microbicide trials.

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Main objective:
•To reduce the impact of the HIV epidemic in Tete province, and more specifically in the City of Tete and in Moatize District

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Determining the prevalence and correlates of placental malaria in HIV1 infected and non-infected women, the effect of placental malaria on viral shedding in the genital tract, and the impact of placental malaria on perinatal HIV1 transmission.

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A large proportion of HIV infected persons - ranging from an estimated 15% to over 50% in EU countries - are unaware of their infection, and therefore do not benefit from treatment and may transmit HIV to others, unknowingly. There is evidence that many opportunities are being missed to diagnose HIV infections in EU countries, particularly in health care settings. ECDC has commissioned ICRH to carry out a study on HIV testing policies, practices and barriers to HIV testing in the EU Member States.

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The Tete-MARP project aims at improving HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) among female sex workers (FSW) in the Tete-Moatize area in Mozambique. The project uses an HIV combination prevention approach, combining behavioural, biological and structural interventions, integrates HIV services with services for other SRHR topics and targets male clients of FSW for behaviour change.

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Education and training can play a vital role in the fight against HIV/AIDS. They can inform and empower children and youth and thereby have a direct impact on the evolution of the epidemic. Education and training can as well have an impact on society, by changing social norms, fighting stigma and discrimination or triggering economic development and thereby have an indirect impact on the evolution of HIV/AIDS. At the same time, the already under resourced and overcharged education systems in sub-Saharan Africa are also affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

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To introduce HIV education on larger scale, it is necessary to know which programmes are effective in reducing sexual risk behavior in young people and which programmes generate only few results. A large problem in evaluating programs is that sexual behavior cannot be observed directly and that it is influenced by a large variety of determinants. The main objectives of this project are to development a theoretical model of the determinants of sexual risk behavious and to assess the utility and effectiveness of this model in HIV prevention programmes among children and youth in Rwanda.

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During the last few years many governments and organisations have been financing and implementing HIV/AIDS prevention projects in sub-Sahara Africa. One of the methods used in HIV prevention that has known a steep upsurge is peer education. The Rwandan Red Cross, with the support of the Belgian Red Cross, has used this methods in its programmes in Rwanda. Because of the succes, the Red Cross aims to scale-up its programme. In that context, research is needed to study the critical success or failure factors of this method.

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