Sexual onset and contraceptive use among adolescents from poor neighbourhoods in Managua, Nicaragua

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Background and objectives
The prevalence of teenage pregnancies in Nicaragua is the highest in Latin-America. This study aimed to gain insight into factors which determine the sexual behaviours concerned.
Methods
From July until August 2011, a door-to-door survey was conducted among adolescents living in randomly selected poor neighbourhoods of Managua. Logistic regression was used to analyse factors related to sexual onset and contraceptive use.
Results
Data from 2803 adolescents were analysed. Of the 475 and 299 sexually active boys and girls, 43% and 54%, respectively, reported contraceptive use. Sexual onset was positively related to increasing age, male sex, alcohol consumption and not living with the parents. Catholic boys and boys never feeling peer pressure to have sexual intercourse were more likely to report consistent condom use. Having a partner and feeling comfortable talking about sexuality with the partner were associated with hormonal contraception.
Conclusions
Our data identified associates of adolescents' sexual behaviour related to personal characteristics (sex and alcohol use), to the interaction with significant others (parents, partners, peers) and to the environment (housing condition, religion). We interpreted those associates within the context of the rapidly changing society and the recently implemented health system reform in Nicaragua.

Keywords: Adolescents; Contraception; Latin America; Nicaragua; Pregnancy in adolescence; Sexual behaviour

Authors & affiliation: 
Peter Decat ∗ , Sara De Meyer ∗ , Lina Jaruseviciene † , Miguel Orozco ‡ , Marcia Ibarra ‡ , Zoyla Segura § , Joel Medina § , Bernardo Vega # , Kristien Michielsen ∗ , Marleen Temmerman ∗ and Olivier Degomme ∗ ∗ International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH), Ghent University, Belgium, † Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Family Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania, ‡ Centro de Investigaci ó n y Estudios de la Salud, Managua, Nicaragua, § Instituto Centro Americano de Salud, Managua, Nicaragua, and # Universidad de Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador
Published In: 
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2014 Oct 20:1-13.
Publication date: 
Monday, October 20, 2014