Publications

PIP:The AIDS epidemic is a rapidly growing problem in Nairobi, where the seroprevalence in pregnant women increased from 4% in 1988 to over 10% in 1991. 22 HIV-1-seropositive pregnant women and 1 HIV-1-infected baby (K88) attending the Pumwani Maternity Hospital of Nairobi between 1990 and 1992 were studied as part of a cohort study of maternal risk factors in mother-to-child transmission. A 250-base pair (bp) fragment of the env gene encoding C2V3 was amplified mostly from DNA isolated from primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells and subsequently sequenced.

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PIP:The AIDS epidemic is a rapidly growing problem in Nairobi, where the seroprevalence in pregnant women increased from 4% in 1988 to over 10% in 1991. 22 HIV-1-seropositive pregnant women and 1 HIV-1-infected baby (K88) attending the Pumwani Maternity Hospital of Nairobi between 1990 and 1992 were studied as part of a cohort study of maternal risk factors in mother-to-child transmission. A 250-base pair (bp) fragment of the env gene encoding C2V3 was amplified mostly from DNA isolated from primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells and subsequently sequenced.

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Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a significant problem in countries with endemic HIV-1 infection. Between 1986 and 1991, 365 children of HIV-1-infected mothers and 363 control children were studied in Kenya. The overall risk of transmission from mother to child, determined by serologic evidence of infection by age > or = 12 months and excess mortality in the HIV-1-exposed group, was 42.8% (range, 27.6%-62.2%).

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The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA PCR results of 94 dried blood spot (DBS) samples on filter paper and corresponding venous blood in EDTA obtained from infants born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers were compared. In addition, the results of HIV-1 DNA PCR on DBS and the HIV-1 RNA PCR from plasma of 70 paired samples were compared. A 100% specificity and a 95% sensitivity for HIV-1 DNA PCR on DBS compared with results for venous blood were observed for the 94 paired samples.

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The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA PCR results of 94 dried blood spot (DBS) samples on filter paper and corresponding venous blood in EDTA obtained from infants born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers were compared. In addition, the results of HIV-1 DNA PCR on DBS and the HIV-1 RNA PCR from plasma of 70 paired samples were compared. A 100% specificity and a 95% sensitivity for HIV-1 DNA PCR on DBS compared with results for venous blood were observed for the 94 paired samples.

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OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection on pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Between January 1989 and December 1991, 406 HIV-1-seropositive and 407 HIV-1-seronegative age- and parity-matched pregnant women from Nairobi, Kenya, all at less than 28 weeks' gestation, were recruited into a prospective study of HIV-1 infection in pregnant women and their offspring. Both groups were followed until 6 weeks postpartum.

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Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are a major health problem, particularly for women in developing countries. Serious sequelae include ascending infections leading to chronic discomfort, ectopic pregnancy and infertility, cervical cancer, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Primary prevention involves sexual behavior modifications and condom use, and secondary prevention targets early and appropriate management of STD and reproductive tract infections (RTI).

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The best news from the treatment perspective is the high efficacy of a single oral dose of 1g azithromycin for the treatment of uncomplicated genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, which is probably the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen. Also, a 2g single dose of metronidazole appears to be as effective as a 7-day course to cure bacterial vaginosis.

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In many African countries where HIV infection is mainly heterosexually transmitted a substantial proportion of women of childbearing age are now infected with the virus. This paper will review the consequences of HIV-1 infection on the reproductive health of seropositive women. The adverse effect of HIV-1 infection on children will be outlined, and strategies for preventing HIV-1 transmission in women of childbearing age and their young children will be discussed.

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No abstract available

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